The Rothschönberger Stolln drainage gallery and the Aktive Revierwasserlaufanstalt Freiberg (RWA water management system) are two of Europe’s largest and most significant water management systems. Consisting of an extensive network of manmade ditches, leats and ponds, from the 16th century the RWA water management system drove the water-powered machines in the mines, the ore dressing works and smelting works. Constructed in 1844, the Rothschönberger Stolln drainage gallery is the deepest and most significant adit in the Freiberg mining district. Its construction marks the final stage in the global development of cross-regional drainage adits.