The uranium ore mining carried out in the 20th century was driven by the atomic arms race of the Cold War. Mining was carried out at varying levels of intensity, from initial ruthless exploitation to the planned, centrally led mining operations from the 1950s onwards. The mining areas in the west of the Erzgebirge, including Johanngeorgenstadt, Aue, and Schlema, were of particular importance during this period. In addition to shaft complex 371 at Bad Schlema, the uranium mining period is documented by the heap landscape (including, among others, heap 366 near Aue), which has since been allowed to return to nature with the help of ecological restoration.