Mining of silver ore around Frohnau began in the 15th century. From the 18th century, the mining of bismuth, cobalt and nickel ores dominated. The Markus Röhling adit developed into one of the most important adits in the region. Located in the Sehma valley is the Frohnauer Hammer. This hammer mill, together with its technical equipment, is representative of the processing of different metals in the Erzgebirge. In 1907, it became the first technical monument to be protected in Germany.

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  • Historic Centre of Annaberg

    Founded in 1496, Annaberg was the first mining town to be built as a planned town in the second period of silver mining in the Erzgebirge. The earnings from silver mining enabled the construction of important religious and secular buildings, like the Miners’ Church of St. Marien, the town hall or magnificent town houses. One splendid built monument is the Hall Church of St. Annen, which houses numerous cultural-historical art treasures. In addition, the mining town was home to important personalities in the mining industry, including the mathematician Adam Ries, the moneyer Lazarus Ercker and the Uthmann family of entrepreneurs.

    • St. Anne’s Church

      Annaberg’s town church is one of the most important late-Gothic buildings in Saxony. In St. Anne’s Church, new shapes and a lighter type of vaulting replaced the soaring vaults characteristic of Gothic architecture. Elements of Renaissance style can be seen in a number of architectural features, as well as in the altars. From the beginning, the town plan included an open space intended for the future church. Foundations for the stone church were laid in 1499. The church features a number of noteworthy construction elements. It was built as a three-aisled church, and its pillars are not load-bearing. The structure of the roof distributes its weight perpendicularly onto the outer walls of the church. The outstanding entrance to the Old Sacristy, finished in 1518, is one of the oldest Renaissance portals in Saxony. The altars were erected in the 1620s. Building work on St. Anne’s Church was completed in 1525. A number of changes were made to the structure over the following centuries. Following extensive renovation, St. Anne’s Church has once more been restored to its original 16th-century condition. The church also houses numerous epitaphs, including some dedicated to famous mining figures. 

    • Old Town Walls

      The town fortifications were comprised of five gates, towers, two gatehouses, and 19 towers, as well as nearly 2.5 kilometres of wall. The construction of the fortifications began in 1503 and was completed in 1540. It was largely financed through the city’s stakes in various mines. The town walls were made of quarry stone and lime. The walls had five gates: the Bohemian Gate, the Buchholz Gate, the Frohnau Gate, the Mill Gate and the Wolkenstein Gate. A number of buildings – the malt house at the Bohemian Gate, the powder tower, the slaughterhouse and the grain house – were integrated into the city walls. A small pond, previously known as the Horse Pond, was integrated into the defences in the south-east. Several long stretches of the town walls can still be seen today. In addition to this, a number of defensive towers that were structurally converted in the 19th century have survived. Some of these were used for residential purposes. The construction of the town promenades occurred alongside the partial demolition of the town walls.

    • Ruins of the Franciscan Monastery

      The former Franciscan monastery was built between 1502 and 1512. Originally, the construction was made up of a completely enclosed area surrounded by four tall buildings and the monastery walls. The main entrance to the monastery church was through the “Beautiful Door” or “Golden Gate”. The gardens covered the area from the monastery to the town walls and small cloister gate. However, the monastery was deconsecrated in 1539. A number of art-historical objects, as well as the monastery’s library, have survived. By 1577, the monastery’s church was derelict and the “Beautiful Door” was relocated to St. Anne’s Church. Today, the high altar of the monastery church serves as the high altar of the St. Katharinenkirche (St. Catherine’s Church) in Buchholz. At the start of the 19th century, much of the monastery was demolished. All that survives of the monastery today are a choir wall of the monastery church with six windows, the remains of the enclosure walls, and some cellar constructions.

    • Bergkirche St. Marien (Miners’ Church of St. Mary)

      The church, built between 1502 and 1511, is located on the north-west side of Annaberg marketplace. The Miners’ Church of St. Mary is the only church in the Erzgebirge financed entirely by a miners’ guild. The construction of the church was paid for with contributions to the Annaberg Miners’ Association. Until the end of mining activities in the Annaberg ore fields, the Miners’ Church was used for worship exclusively by people involved in the mining industry. It held mining sermons at the end of each quarterly administration period for the mines, as well as on mining public holidays. The church was destroyed by fire on several occasions. The Miners’ Church as it is now dates back to 1736. The most notable items in the church’s historical inventory include the miners’ pulpit and the historical pews for the miners’ association. The nativity scene featuring characters dressed as miners and townspeople has been on display since the church was reopened in 2005. It is a link between the town’s mining history and the present. During the First World War, the historical mining bell was melted down. A new bell was consecrated in 1996, and in 2005 the church was reopened after comprehensive restoration.

    • Annaberg Town Hall

      Annaberg’s large town hall is one of the beautiful secular buildings in the mining town. The town hall is located at the north-east corner of the market place. It was originally built between 1535 and 1538 and was later destroyed by fire several times. In 1731, the Dresden court architect JOHANN CHRISTIAN NAUMANN (*1664 †1742) created a design for the rebuilding of the town hall which was only partially realised during its construction in 1752. In addition to the remnants of the stone spiral staircase tower from the 16th century, the vaulting on the ground floor and the reconstructed mine surveyor’s room are particularly worth visiting. Representations of people involved in the mining industry in the 17th century, as well as important coats of arms, are on display in the latter. Extensive restoration was carried out in 2002.

    • Mining authority

      The local mining authority in Annaberg is a three-storey terraced house in the Große Kirchgasse, the connecting street between the marketplace and St. Anne’s Church. The mining authority building has a facade painted in the Baroque style. There are dormer windows on its gabled roof. The original vaulting survives in the hallway.

    • Mining Storehouse

      The Annaberg mining storehouse, built on the monastery grounds towards the end of the 18th century, is a solidly built three-storey construction with a developed attic level. As a mining storehouse, it was primarily used for grain. However, other items were also stored here. The original vaulting survives in the hallway on the ground floor. Despite extensive remodelling, the characteristic solid masonry construction of this former storage building has been retained.

    • Adam-Ries House

      This small two-storey terraced house was built in 1496/97. It was the home of the master mathematician ADAM RIES (*1492 †1559). The building was later repeatedly converted for different uses, and was used as both a residential dwelling and a school of mathematics in the 16th century. It was fully renovated between 1981–83 and once again in 2010. It has been used as a museum since 1984.

    • Wilder Mann Guesthouse

      The building was constructed in 1507 as the residence of the elector, moneyer, and mine manager ALBRECHT VON SCHREIBERSDORF. Around a century later, in 1604, it began operating as an inn. It was joined with the neighbouring property to make one building in the 18th century. A third storey was added in 1835. The facade of the building was redesigned in 1920. Today, the building is a long construction with twelve bays and a hipped roof. There are a number of vaulted spaces on the ground floor, and there is a diamond vault in the hallway of the building. The dining area features an elaborately designed ceiling with wooden beams.

    • Town Library (formerly the Goldene Gans or Golden Goose Inn)

      In 1500, a large, single-storey stone building was erected by HANS STRUNTZ. The ground-floor ceiling featured a striking cell vault. In 1508, just a few years after the house was built, the mining entrepreneur LORENZ PFLOCK was named as the new owner of the building. Under his ownership, the house was extended. The UTHMANN FAMILY were among the later owners of the house. After 1847, a third storey was added to the existing two floors. The building has housed the present town and district library since 1935. The imposing building has an entrance portal with a pointed arch, and an entryway which was previously used as a passage through the building. An entrance to the stairwell branches off to the side. The rooms on the ground floor are characterised by the previously mentioned cell and stellar vaults. The stairwell, too, is vaulted. On the upper floor is a historic coffered ceiling. The doors and entryways feature embrasures decorated with rods.

    • Lazarus Ercker House

      The Lazarus Ercker house is a large, solidly built two-storey townhouse with foundations dating from at least the 16th century. It features strong foundations on top of historic cellar vaults. The house was damaged by fire on several occasions, but was later rebuilt with new architectural features. The Annaberg-born LAZARUS ERCKER (*circa 1528 †1594) is thought to have been the most important previous owner of the house. ERCKER, who acted as moneyer and mint supervisor in Dresden and later in Goslar and the Bohemian town of Kutná Hora, is one of the mining town of Annaberg’s most famous sons. He gained international recognition through his widely disseminated book of assays, which was first published in 1574. Later editions of the book, Description of Leading Ore Processing and Mining Methods, were published on numerous occasions.

  • Frohnau Mining Landscape

    The Frohnau mining landscape is an expansive area of heaps with small deposits from the 15th to 17th centuries, which follow the underground ore veins, larger main shaft heaps from the 18th century and large heap deposits from the period of uranium ore mining. The surface buildings that originally belonged to the shafts have not been preserved, with the exception of the area around the Malwine mine and the Markus Röhling mine. The Markus Röhling visitors’ mine can be accessed through the opening of Adit 81. South of this opening the adit’s actual opening can be found. It stretches over a total of approximately 8.6 km.

    • Markus Röhling Adit

      This mine is open for visitors! After a roughly 600-metre journey on a pit railway, visitors can view the impressive vestiges of the period of silver and cobalt mining between 1733 and 1857, as well as of the later uranium mining by SAG Wismut. The main attraction is the fully-functional replica water wheel. Standing 9 metres high, it was accurately recreated by members of the historic mining association Verein Altbergbau. A lot of the original machinery used for bismuth mining is still present, and can be viewed during a walk around the grounds of the mining complex.

      The underground visitors’ mine includes a large number of machine rooms and wheel chambers, as well as various drift mines and excavated areas from all mining periods. The visitors’ mine is accessed through adit 81. This adit was built for uranium mining during the last period of mining in this area. It was a pilot shaft directly connected to the newly bored shafts 79 and 117. The cross-cut, which is partially open to visitors, is 903 metres long in total. Nowadays, the front part of the cross-cut can be traversed with a pit railway. The newly lined mouth of adit 81 also forms the entrance to the visitors’ mine. The original mouth of the Markus Röhling adit, originally called the St. Anna adit, can be found to the south of the new entrance and is of historical significance. The adit stretches over a total area of approximately 8.6 kilometres. The adit mouth walls date from 1831. Above ground, there is a technology park at the edge of the visitors’ mine. The administration and assembly building in the Sehma valley is used as a modern functional building by the visitors’ mine.

    • Frohnauer Hammer forge

      The Frohnauer Hammer consists of the iron forge and flood ditch, a small workshop building, and the manor house. The hammer mill was previously a grain mill, with origins most likely dating back to the earliest history of Frohnau village. The mill fell into disrepair at the end of the 16th century. Following a complete conversion in 1621, it became a hammer mill where various metals were forged – first silver, then copper, and finally iron. In 1692, the hammer mill burned down and was rebuilt shortly afterwards. The hammer mill went out of operation in 1904. The hammer mill association established in 1907 acquired the plant one year later, and it was operated as a museum from as early as 1909. The water-powered hammer mill is a quarry-stone building with shingle-covered hipped roof and an L-shaped floor plan. It is powered by water from the Sehma river, directed into a separate watercourse by a weir approximately 300 metres upriver from the forge.

    • Monor house of the hammer mill

      In 1697, the manor house opposite the hammer mill was built. The date can be read on the wooden beam above the front door. The ground floor of the building is made of quarry stone blocks. Above that, the building has a half-timbered construction featuring diagonal crosses. The hipped roof is tiled with slate and features several dormer windows.