The centre of the Annaberg mining region was the eponymous mining town, which was founded at the end of the 15th century following the discovery of large silver deposits. Located within the Annaberg-Frohnau mining landscape, the town is as much a part of the World Heritage nomination as the Pöhlberg and Buchholz mining landscapes. Various underground resources were mined in the Annaberg district, including silver, copper, tin, bismuth, and cobalt. A range of other resources were also quarried. The most important architectural and cultural monument in the Annaberg mining district is the late-Gothic hall church of St. Anne, which was constructed from 1499–1525. The Annaberg mining district bordered the Marienberg mining district to the east, and the Schneeberg mining district to the west.
Mining of silver ore around Frohnau began in the 15th century. From the 18th century, the mining of bismuth, cobalt and nickel ores dominated. The Markus Röhling adit developed into one of the most important adits in the region. Located in the Sehma valley is the Frohnauer Hammer. This hammer mill, together with its technical equipment, is representative of the processing of different metals in the Erzgebirge. In 1907, it became the first technical monument to be protected in Germany.
Founded as St. Katharinenberg im Buchholz in 1495, Buchholz grew into a small mining settlement due to its mineral resources. The Hall Church in Buchholz, with its Wolfgang altarpiece of importance for cultural history, bears witness to the silver mining period of the early 16th century. The former execution place dates from the same period. Marked by two slabs of rock, it stands in the middle of the mining district. In the last phase of mining, uranium ore extraction produced terraconic heaps that are only preserved here in the Erzgebirge.
A mining area that is recorded from the 15th century is located to the east of Pöhlberg. The extensive mining of silver-bearing copper ore is mainly documented by the heaps and the preserved underground mine workings that are unique in Erzgebirge mining. After the introduction of the liquation process, silver was extracted in the Grünthal Liquation Hut Complex from the copper ore mined here. As a result, mines such as Heilige Dreifaltigkeit and St. Briccius regained importance.